Ethan J. Duwell; Erica N. Woertz; Jedidiah Mathis; Joseph Carroll; Edgar A. DeYoe

Aberrant visual population receptive fields in human albinism

publication date
May 2021
see more


Retinotopic organization is a fundamental feature of visual cortex thought to play a vital role in encoding spatial information. One important aspect of normal retinotopy is the representation of the right and left hemifields in contralateral visual cortex. However, in human albinism, many temporal retinal afferents decussate aberrantly at the optic chiasm resulting in partially superimposed representations of opposite hemifields in each hemisphere of visual cortex. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in human albinism suggest that the right and left hemifield representations are superimposed in a mirror-symmetric manner. This should produce imaging voxels which respond to two separate locations mirrored across the vertical meridian. However, it is not yet clear how retino-cortical miswiring in albinism manifests at the level of single voxel population receptive fields (pRFs). Here, we used pRF modeling to fit both single and dual pRF models to the visual responses of voxels in visual areas V1 to V3 of five subjects with albinism. We found that subjects with albinism (but not controls) have sizable clusters of voxels with unequivocal dual pRFs consistently corresponding to, but not fully coextensive with, regions of hemifield overlap. These dual pRFs were typically positioned at locations roughly mirrored across the vertical meridian and were uniquely clustered within a portion of the visual field for each subject.


This study shows that retinocortical miswiring in albinism results in single imaging voxels with bilateral dual pRFs. Voxels with dual pRFs are numerous in subjects with albinism but not control subjects and occur selectively in cortical regions where the right and left hemifield representations are superimposed. Our results agree with previous studies which predict that dual pRFs in albinism are positioned at approximately mirror image locations across the VM but suggest that this symmetry is not always precise. Thus, in order to accurately fit responses from all dual pRF voxels, models cannot be rigidly mirror symmetrical, but must instead incorporate some flexibility. Finally, dual pRFs in albinism were not evenly distributed across the visual field, but were instead uniquely clustered within a portion of the visual field for each subject. In the future, mapping subjects’ unique dual pRF distributions could guide spatially focused psychophysical tests aimed at revealing previously undetected perceptual consequences of retinocortical miswiring in albinism.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.

Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
1 2 3



[mbv name="token-practice-city"] eye doctor explains how to get rid of under eye bags

As a local optometry clinic, we often get asked how to get rid of under eye bags. Many people have […]

Read More

Los Angeles Eye Emergency? What should you do if you suffer a blow to your eye

Eye injuries are a significant public health concern, and it's estimated that about 2.5 million eye injuries occur in the […]

Read More
tired-exhausted-man-taking-off-glasses-feeling-eye-KW5EY96 (1)

How to tell if your pink eye is viral or bacterial

It is estimated that pink eye is one of the most common eye conditions in the United States, with an […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
16816 Clark Ave, Bellflower, CA 90706
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram