Amplify EyeCare of Greater Long Beach Logo
Authors
Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Ciner, Elise B.; Cyert, Lynn A.

Associations between Hyperopia and Other Vision and Refractive Error Characteristics

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To investigate the association of hyperopia greater than +3.25 diopters (D) with amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, astigmatism, and reduced stereoacuity in preschoolers.

 

Methods 

Three- to five-year-old Head Start preschoolers (N = 4040) underwent vision examination including monocular visual acuity (VA), cover testing, and cycloplegic refraction during the Vision in Preschoolers Study. Visual acuity was tested with habitual correction and was retested with full cycloplegic correction when VA was reduced below age norms in the presence of significant refractive error. Stereoacuity testing (Stereo Smile II) was performed on 2898 children during study years 2 and 3. Hyperopia was classified into three levels of severity (based on the most positive meridian on cycloplegic refraction): group 1: greater than or equal to +5.00 D, group 2: greater than +3.25 D to less than +5.00 D with interocular difference in spherical equivalent greater than or equal to 0.50 D, and group 3: greater than +3.25 D to less than +5.00 D with interocular difference in spherical equivalent less than 0.50 D. “Without” hyperopia was defined as refractive error of +3.25 D or less in the most positive meridian in both eyes. Standard definitions were applied for amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, and astigmatism.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Relative to children without hyperopia, children with hyperopia greater than +3.25 D (n = 472, groups 1, 2, and 3) had a higher proportion of amblyopia (34.5 vs. 2.8%, p < 0.0001) and strabismus (17.0 vs. 2.2%, p < 0.0001). More severe levels of hyperopia were associated with higher proportions of amblyopia (51.5% in group 1 vs. 13.2% in group 3) and strabismus (32.9% in group 1 vs. 8.4% in group 3; trend p < 0.0001 for both). The presence of hyperopia greater than +3.25 D was also associated with a higher proportion of anisometropia (26.9 vs. 5.1%, p < 0.0001) and astigmatism (29.4 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.0001). Median stereoacuity of nonstrabismic, nonamblyopic children with hyperopia (n = 206) (120 arcsec) was worse than that of children without hyperopia (60 arcsec) (p < 0.0001), and more severe levels of hyperopia were associated with worse stereoacuity (480 arcsec for group 1 and 120 arcsec for groups 2 and 3, p < 0.0001).

 

Conclusions 

The presence and magnitude of hyperopia among preschoolers were associated with higher proportions of amblyopia, strabismus, anisometropia, and astigmatism and with worse stereoacuity even among nonstrabismic, nonamblyopic children.


Testimonials


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.


Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.


Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!


Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.


Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.


Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.


Daniel G.
1 2 3

Blog

main-2

Macular degeneration: separating fact from fiction- myths and misconceptions

Macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older adults in the United States. Approximately 20 million adults in […]

Read More
frustrated-millennial-businessman-having-strong-headache-tired-from-laptop-work

Alleviating Eye Strain from Digital Devices: Tips and Exercises for Relief

As we spend more and more time in front of computer screens and cell phones, it's important to be aware […]

Read More
k8-r87zX1RWECQ-unsplash

Sudden Vision Changes: What to Do and When to Visit Our Optometrist in Bellflower

Sudden changes in vision can be alarming, and it's important to know when to seek medical attention. In this blog, […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
16816 Clark Ave, Bellflower, CA 90706
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram