Molina, Rubén MS∗; Redondo, Beatriz PhD; Vera, Jesús PhD1; García, José Antonio PhD; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio MD, PhD; Jiménez, Raimundo PhD

Children with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show an Altered Eye Movement Pattern during Reading

publication date
February 7, 2020
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by oculomotor abnormalities. However, the eye movement pattern of children with ADHD during reading has yet to be fully determined. This investigation provides novel insights into the altered eye movement pattern during oral reading of nonmedicated children with pure ADHD in comparison with age-matched controls.



The purpose of this study was to objectively compare the eye movement pattern during oral reading in a group of nonmedicated children with pure ADHD and an age-matched control group.



Forty-one children, 21 children with pure ADHD (9.3 ± 2.2 years, 15 boys) and 20 control children (9.3 ± 2.5 years, 10 boys), orally read a standardized text according to their age while the eye movement pattern was objectively recorded using the Visagraph Eye Movement recording system.



The Bayesian statistical analyses revealed that children with ADHD exhibited a significantly higher number of fixations (Bayes factor 10 [BF10] = 3.39), regressions (BF10 = 9.97), saccades in return sweeps (BF10 = 4.63), and anomalies of fixations and regressions (BF10 = 3.66) compared with controls. In addition, children with ADHD significantly showed longer reading times (BF10 = 31.29), as well as lower reading rate (BF10 = 156.74) and grade-level equivalent (BF10 = 168.24) in comparison with controls.



Our data showed that the nonmedicated children with pure ADHD have an altered eye movement pattern during oral reading when compared with controls, which cannot be attributable to any comorbid condition. The present outcomes may help to understand the link between ADHD and reading performance and design the most pertinent strategies to enhance the reading skills of this population.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

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Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

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This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

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