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Alvarez, Tara L. PhD, FAAO,; Scheiman, Mitchell OD, PhD, FAAO; Santos, Elio M. PhD; Yaramothu, Chang PhD; d'Antonio-Bertagnolli, John Vito MS

Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study Randomized Clinical Trial: Clinical Outcome Results

publication date
July 14, 2020
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These data confirm the effectiveness of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy for improving the near point of convergence and positive fusional vergence in young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency within a double-masked longitudinal randomized clinical trial.


This study aimed to report changes in clinical signs and symptoms of convergence insufficiency from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy for young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency.


In this double-masked, randomized clinical trial, convergence insufficiency patients (n = 50; average age, 21 ± 3 years; range, 18 to 32 years) were randomized to either office-based vergence/accommodative therapy or office-based placebo therapy. Improvements in (1) near point of convergence, (2) positive fusional vergence, and (3) self-reported symptoms (Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey [CISS] score) were evaluated after twelve 1-hour sessions of treatment within the office comparing the results from the vergence/accommodative therapy and the placebo therapy groups.



The mean near point of convergence improved by 6.0 and 3.1 cm in the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups, respectively (mean difference of −2.9 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI], −4.6 to −1.0 cm; P < .01). The mean positive fusional vergence increased by 17.3 and 7.4Δ in the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups, respectively (mean difference of 9.9Δ; 95% CI, 4.9 to 16.0Δ; P < .001). The mean CISS score improved by 12.4 and 10.1 points in the vergence/accommodative and placebo therapy groups, respectively (mean difference of 2.3 points; 95% CI, −8.3 to +4.6 points; P = .56).


Our results demonstrate that office-based vergence/accommodative therapy is effective for improving the near point of convergence and positive fusional vergence in young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency. However, given that both treatment groups had a similar reduction in self-reported symptoms, we recommend that the CISS be revised if it is to be used as an outcome measure in future studies of convergence insufficiency.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.

Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
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