Pérez-Rico, Consuelo; García-Romo, Esperanza; Gros-Otero, Juan; Roldán-Díaz, Isabel; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Germain, Francisco; Blanco, Román

Evaluation of Visual Function and Retinal Structure in Adult Amblyopes

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To evaluate visual function and its relationship to structure in adult amblyopic subjects.



This observational, cross-sectional study included 24 adult amblyopes and 19 healthy subjects. The amblyopes were separated into three groups: anisometropic amblyopes (n = 15), strabismic amblyopes (n = 5), and strabismic amblyopes with anisometropia (n = 4). The relationships of the multifocal visual evoked potential (VEP) results with the clinical findings and psychophysical (Humphrey visual field) and structural (spectral domain optical coherence tomography) diagnostic test data were then investigated.



Significant differences in the multifocal VEP amplitude responses (abnormal cluster defects), combining the interocular and monocular probability analysis, were observed between the anisometropic amblyopic (80%) and nonamblyopic eyes (13.3%) (p < 0.001), whereas in strabismic amblyopia, such defects were found in 100% of the amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes. Delayed multifocal VEP interocular and monocular latencies were seen in 66.6 and 26.6% of the anisometropic amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes, with no significant differences between eyes (p = 0.065). Likewise, latency delays were found in 40% of both strabismic amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes. Multifocal VEP latency showed significant differences between anisometropic and strabismic amblyopic eyes (p = 0.036). Significant agreement was found between the Humphrey visual field and the multifocal VEP visual field defects in the central area of the visual field (p = 0.033). The average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, foveal and macular thickness, and macular volume, as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, did not show any significant differences between the amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes and the control group.



Multifocal VEP amplitudes and latencies were significantly affected in amblyopic eyes and, to a lesser extent, in nonamblyopic eyes. Multifocal VEP response latencies were more delayed in anisometropic eyes than in strabismic eyes, suggesting that anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia may represent different neural abnormalities.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.

Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
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