Authors
M W Rouse, E Borsting, L Hyman, M Hussein, S A Cotter, M Flynn, M Scheiman, M Gallaway, P N De Land

Frequency of convergence insufficiency among fifth and sixth graders. The Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group

publication date
1999 Sep
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose: To estimate the frequency of convergence insufficiency (CI) and its related clinical characteristics among 9- to 13-year-old children.

Methods: Fifth and sixth graders were screened in school settings at three different study sites. Eligible children with 20/30 or better visual acuity, minimal refractive error, no strabismus, and exophoria at near were evaluated according to a standardized protocol to determine the presence and severity of CI. These children were classified according to the presence and number of the following clinical signs: (1) exophoria at near > or =4delta than far, (2) insufficient fusional convergence, and (3) receded nearpoint of convergence. Also, children were classified as accommodative insufficient (AI) if they failed Hofstetter's minimum amplitude formula or had greater than a + 1.00 D lag on Monocular Estimate Method retinoscopy.


Conclusion/Results

Results: Of 684 children screened, 468 (68%) were eligible for further evaluation. Of these, 453 had complete data on CI measurements and were classified as: no CI (nonexophoric at near or exophoric at near and < 4delta difference between near and far) (78.6%); low suspect CI (exophoric at near and one clinical sign: exophoria at near > or =4delta than far) (8.4%); high suspect CI (exophoric at near and two clinical signs) (8.8%); and definite CI (exophoric at near and three clinical signs) (4.2%). CI status varied according to ethnicity and study site (p < 0.0005), but not gender. The frequency of AI increased with the number of CI-related signs. For CI children with three signs, 78.9% were classified as also having AI.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that CI (defined as high suspect and definite) is frequent (13%) among fifth and sixth grade children. In addition, there is a high percentage of CI children with an associated AI.


Testimonials


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.


Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.


Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!


Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.


Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.


Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.


Daniel G.
1 2 3

Blog

pexels-eternal-happiness-3327126

[mbv name="token-practice-city"] eye doctor explains how to get rid of under eye bags

As a local optometry clinic, we often get asked how to get rid of under eye bags. Many people have […]

Read More
closeupeyes2

Los Angeles Eye Emergency? What should you do if you suffer a blow to your eye

Eye injuries are a significant public health concern, and it's estimated that about 2.5 million eye injuries occur in the […]

Read More
tired-exhausted-man-taking-off-glasses-feeling-eye-KW5EY96 (1)

How to tell if your pink eye is viral or bacterial

It is estimated that pink eye is one of the most common eye conditions in the United States, with an […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
16816 Clark Ave, Bellflower, CA 90706
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram