Authors
ROUSE, MICHAEL W. OD, MSEd, FAAO1; BORSTING, ERIC OD, MS, FAAO; HYMAN, LESLIE PhD; HUSSEIN, MOHAMED PhD; COTTER, SUSAN A. OD, FAAO; FLYNN, MARY OD3; SCHEIMAN, MITCHELL OD, FAAO; GALLAWAY, MICHAEL OD, FAAO; DE LAND, PAUL N. PhD

Frequency of Convergence Insufficiency Among Fifth and Sixth Graders

publication date
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To estimate the frequency of convergence insufficiency (Cl) and its related clinical characteristics among 9- to 13-year-old children. Methods. Fifth and sixth graders were screened in school settings at three different study sites. Eligible children with 20/30 or better visual acuity, minimal refractive error, no strabismus, and exophoria at near were evaluated according to a standardized protocol to determine the presence and severity of Cl. These children were classified according to the presence and number of the following clinical signs: (1) exophoria at near S4A than far, (2) insufficient fusional convergence, and (3) receded nearpoint of convergence. Also, children were classified as accommodative insufficient (AI) if they failed Hofstetter's minimum amplitude formula or had greater than a +1.00 D lag on Monocular Estimate Method retinoscopy.


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Of 684 children screened, 468 (68%) were eligible for further evaluation. Of these, 453 had complete data on Cl measurements and were classified as: no Cl (nonexophoric at near or exophoric at near and<4A difference between near and far) (78.6%); low suspect Cl (exophoric at near and one clinical sign: exophoria at near >4A than far) (8.4%); high suspect Cl (exophoric at near and two clinical signs) (8.8%); and definite Cl (exophoric at near and three clinical signs) (4.2%). Cl status varied according to ethnicity and study site (p<0.0005), but not gender. The frequency of AI increased with the number of Cl-related signs. For Cl children with three signs, 78.9% were classified as also having AI.

 

Conclusions 

These findings suggest that Cl (defined as high suspect and definite) is frequent (13%) among fifth and sixth grade children. In addition, there is a high percentage of Cl children with an associated AI


Testimonials


  • I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.


    Claire A.

  • Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.


    Jim K.

  • My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!


    Teresa S.

  • The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.


    Joe M.

  • I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.


    Kayla W.

Blog

Lighting-Assessment---Intensity-1

Lighting as Part of A Low Vision Evaluation

A low vision evaluation is in some ways similar to a regular eye exam, and in other ways entirely different. […]

Read More
josh-applegate-p_KJvKVsH14-unsplash

Can ADD/ADHD be a Vision Problem?

According to a study, approximately 20% of 4.5 million children currently identified as having ADHD may have been misdiagnosed. Furthermore […]

Read More
pexels-monstera-6186146

Are all magnifiers the same? The difference in optics between handheld magnifiers

Hand magnifiers are hand-held devices that can be placed over an object or text to enlarge or magnify what you […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
16816 Clark Ave, Bellflower, CA 90706, United States
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram