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Kim, Sang-Yeob PhD; Cho, Hyun Gug PhD; Moon, Byeong-Yeon PhD; Yu, Dong-Sik PhD

Fusional Single Vision with Prism-induced Vergence Has More Influence than Diplopia on Postural Stability

publication date
October 21, 2019
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Prism-induced convergence and vertical vergence for maintaining binocular fusion induced postural instability to a greater extent than diplopic conditions. This finding has important implication in relation to postural control of patients with large exophoria or vertical phoria in optometric clinic.



The purpose of this study was to examine whether binocular single vision with prism-induced horizontal and vertical vergence and diplopia might affect the static postural stability.



Forty-two subjects with a mean ± standard deviation age of 23.79 ± 2.81 years were enrolled in this study. To simulate convergence and divergence, base-in and base-out (BO) prisms of 4 and 8 Δ were added, respectively. To simulate vertical vergence, vertical prism of 2 Δ was added in a trial frame that corrected for the subject's refractive error during far distance (6 m) gaze. The prism power necessary to break fusion in each subject was detected and applied to induce diplopia in horizontal and vertical directions. Indices of general instability and sway power were measured under visual conditions using Tetrax and compared with normal viewing without the prism. Correlations between general instability indices and the ranges of break point in convergence and divergence were analyzed.



Postural instability was increased significantly when convergence induced by BO 4 and 8 Δ and vertical vergence induced by 2 Δ were stimulated. The correlation coefficient between ranges of BO break point and indices of general instability was −0.308 in the BO 4 Δ and −0.306 in the BO 8 Δ condition.



Although binocular input is recognized as an important factor in postural stability, binocular input with excessively stimulated convergence and vertical vergence during a far distance gaze is a latent factor affecting postural stability. On the other hand, diplopia did not influence postural stability.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

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My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

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The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

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