Wei Wei Lee, Iqbal Tajunisah, Kanagasundram Sharmilla, Mohammadreza Peyman, Visvaraja Subrayan

Retinal nerve fiber layer structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and its relationship to disease state: evidence from optical coherence tomography

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Purpose: We determined structural retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) changes in schizophrenia patients and established if the structural changes were related to the duration of the illness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

Methods: We recruited a total of 30 schizophrenic patients and 30 age-matched controls in the study. The schizophrenic patients were subdivided further to acute (n = 5), chronic (n = 13), and long-term chronic (n = 12) subgroups depending on their duration of illness. Using SD-OCT, the peripapillary RNFL thickness, macula thickness, and macula volume measurements of schizophrenic patients and the control subjects were measured and compared at each location.


Results: Schizophrenic patients showed a statistically significant reduction in overall peripapillary RNFL thickness (cases, 94.70 ± 9.88 μm; controls, 103.53 ± 6.53 μm; P < 0.001), macula thickness (cases, 269.26 ± 12.59 μm; controls, 284.83 ± 9.76 μm; P < 0.001), and macula volume (cases, 9.61 ± 0.45 mm(3); controls, 10.17 ± 0.35 μm; P < 0.001). Chronic and long-term chronic schizophrenic patients were found to have significant peripapillary RNFL thinning, macula thinning, and reduction of macula volume when compared to controls (P < 0.001). There also was a statistically significant reverse correlation (P < 0.05) of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = -0.36), macula thickness (r = -0.38), and macula volume reduction (r = -0.36) with the duration of schizophrenic illness.

Conclusions: These results indicate that RNFL and macula thickness, as well as macula volume measurements are reduced in schizophrenic patients. The degree of thinning and reduction was more significant in the chronic phase of the disease and correlated with the duration of illness. These findings demonstrate that SD-OCT can be a useful tool for the diagnosis and monitoring the progression of this disease.


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Claire A.

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My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

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This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

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Daniel G.
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