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Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Marsack, Jason D.; Benoit, Julia S.; Anderson, Heather A.

Simulated Keratometry Repeatability in Subjects with and without Down Syndrome

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To assess the repeatability of simulated keratometry measures obtained with Zeiss Atlas topography for subjects with and without Down syndrome (DS).


Corneal topography was attempted on 140 subjects with DS and 138 controls (aged 7–59 years). Subjects who had at least three measures in each eye were included in analysis (DS: n = 140 eyes (70 subjects) and controls: n = 264 eyes (132 subjects)). For each measurement, the steep corneal power (K), corneal astigmatism, flat K orientation, power vector representation of astigmatism (J0, J45), and astigmatic dioptric difference were determined for each measurement (collectively termed keratometry values here). For flat K orientation comparisons, only eyes with >0.50 DC of astigmatism were included (DS: n = 131 eyes (68 subjects) and control: n = 217 eyes (119 subjects)). Repeatability was assessed using (1) group mean variability (average standard deviation (SD) across subjects), (2) coefficient of repeatability (COR), (3) coefficient of variation (COV), and (4) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).



The keratometry values showed good repeatability as evidenced by low group mean variability for DS versus control eyes (≤0.26D vs. ≤0.09D for all dioptric values; 4.51° vs. 3.16° for flat K orientation); however, the group mean variability was significantly higher in DS eyes than control eyes for all parameters (p ≤ 0.03). On average, group mean variability was 2.5 times greater in the DS eyes compared to control eyes across the keratometry values. Other metrics of repeatability also indicated good repeatability for both populations for each keratometry value, although repeatability was always better in the control eyes.


DS eyes showed more variability (on average: 2.5×) compared to controls for all keratometry values. Although differences were statistically significant, on average 91% of DS eyes had variability ≤0.50D for steep K and astigmatism, and 75% of DS eyes had variability ≤5 degrees for flat K orientation.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

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Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
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