Authors
Momeni-Moghaddam, Hamed; Goss, David A.; Dehvari, Abubakr

Vergence Facility with Stereoscopic and Nonstereoscopic Targets

publication date
August 20, 2008
Category
see more

Abstract/Introduction

Purpose 

To compare vergence facility with nonstereo and stereo targets in binocular symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.

 

Methods 

Sixty-six students were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups according to the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Questionnaire score. Vergence facility was tested at 40 cm by flipper prism 3Δ BI/12Δ BO (BI, base-in; BO, base-out). The targets used were a nonstereo target (a vertical column of small letter “E” of ~20/30 size), a stereo-local target (fifth set of circles of the Titmus test with stereoacuity of 100 arcsec), and a stereo-global target (page 6 of the TNO test with stereoacuity of 120 arcsec).


Conclusion/Results

Results 

Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed differences in the mean vergence facility with different targets in all subjects and separately in two symptom groups (p < 0.001). In all subjects and separately in the symptomatic subjects, this difference was statistically significant among the three different targets (p < 0.05). In the asymptomatic subjects, this difference was not significant between the measured values with nonstereo and stereo-local targets (p > 0.05) but significant for the comparison of stereo-global targets with the other two targets. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the cutoff points 10.5, 10.5, and 9.75 cycles per minute with nonstereo, stereo-local, and stereo-global targets, respectively. The sensitivity of the three targets used was the same (97%). Specificity was 0.93 or higher with all three targets, with the highest specificity obtained with the stereo-global target (100%).

 

Conclusions 

The highest vergence facility was obtained with a nonstereo target and the lowest was obtained with a stereo-global target. High sensitivity with all three targets means that there are few false-negative results with them, and the high specificity is indicative of low false-positive results. Hence, the vergence facility predictive value would be high in diagnosing binocular symptomatic patients using a 3Δ BI/12Δ BO prism flipper at near and a response cutoff of about 10 cycles per minute or less.


Testimonials


  • I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.


    Claire A.

  • Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.


    Jim K.

  • My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!


    Teresa S.

  • The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.


    Joe M.

  • I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.


    Kayla W.

Blog

strabismus_esotropia_large-e1627986452983

Can lazy eye be treated for adults?

Amblyopia is very common in adults, with a US prevalence ranging between 1% and 4%. Lazy eye or amblyopia can […]

Read More
pexels-anna-shvets-5231265

Hands-Free Magnification: Telescopic, Microscopic, And Prismatic Low Vision Glasses

It is estimated that 12 million Americans over the age of 40 have some form of vision impairment. Magnification devices […]

Read More
children-drawing-together-classroom (1)

Binocular vision and why two eyes need to work together

A significant percentage at least 10% to 20% of the population suffers from binocular vision dysfunction, yet almost no one […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Working Hours

Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:15pm
friday-sunday
Closed
Location
16816 Clark Ave, Bellflower, CA 90706, United States
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
phone-handsetarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram