Pang, Yi; Frantz, Kelly A.; Schlange, Darrell G.

Vision Therapy Management for Dissociated Horizontal Deviation

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Dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD), a rare subtype of strabismus, is a change in horizontal eye alignment that does not obey Hering’s law. The variation is unrelated to a change in accommodation and depends on which eye is fixating. Both esotropia (ET) and exotropia (XT) can manifest in the same patient with DHD. Surgery has been reported to manage DHD, but often a second or third surgery is necessary. We report two cases of DHD that were managed with vision therapy (VT).


Case Reports 

Case one: A 9-year-old girl presented for eye examination with her parents noting an eye drifting out. Cover test showed a DHD that varied from 15Δ left ET to 15Δ alternating XT. A 40Δ XT manifested when she was inattentive. Anti-suppression, vergence, accommodation, and oculomotility were addressed with VT. Upon completion of VT, binocular vision functions were normal except for appreciation of global stereopsis. No strabismus was observed during the examination. These findings were stable at a 7-month follow-up visit. Case two: A 40-year-old man presented for eye examination with the complaint of double vision and eye strain. Cover test revealed a DHD that varied from 5Δ ET to 15Δ XT, along with DVD. A 30 to 40Δ XT was observed during visual inattention. Antisuppression and vergence skills were addressed with VT. At the end of VT, most binocular vision functions were normal. No strabismus was observed on cover test. Follow-up examination 16 years later showed no strabismus by cover test, although XT manifested when he was inattentive.



In two DHD cases, control of eye alignment improved with VT. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first case reports to describe management of DHD with VT. Eye care practitioners should be aware that a long period of VT may be necessary to successfully manage DHD.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.

Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
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