John M. Foley

Visually directed action

publication date
May 2021
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When people throw or walk to targets in front of them without visual feedback, they often respond short. With feedback, responses rapidly become approximately accurate. To understand this, an experiment is performed with four stages. 1) The errors in blind walking and blind throwing are measured in a virtual environment in light and dark cue conditions. 2) Error feedback is introduced and the resulting learning measured. 3) Transfer to the other response is then measured. 4) Finally, responses to the perceived distances of the targets are measured. There is large initial under-responding. Feedback rapidly makes responses almost accurate. Throw training transfers completely to walking. Walk training produces a small effect on throwing. Under instructions to respond to perceived distances, under-responding recurs. The phenomena are well described by a model in which the relation between target distance and response distance is determined by a sequence of a perceptual, a cognitive, and a motor transform. Walk learning is primarily motor; throw learning is cognitive.


This study confirms that in a dark or lighted virtual environment, subjects walk and throw short of the target. It shows that, if they are given error feedback, subjects quickly correct the trained response to be near the target distance on average. Transfer tests show that throw training acts to produce near accurate throwing and walking. Walk training produces near accurate walking and improves throwing slightly. When, after the training and transfer test, subjects are instructed to respond to the perceived positions, some throw-trained subjects revert to their initial stage 1 responses and some show no reversion. Overall, walk-trained subjects show partial reversion, consistent with partial nulling the cognitive transform, but not the walk transform. Within a stage, responses are stable, except for stage 2, in which responses change rapidly in the first session. The results are accounted for by models in which different sets of a perceptual, a cognitive, and a motor transform are applied to determine the response functions in each condition. The effect of error feedback is to change one or both of these transforms.


I haven't actually used the optometrist side, so my review is limited to the vision therapy offered.  This office was recommended by my occupational therapist for the treatment of my double vision following a stroke.

Claire A.

Love this location. I had a brain injury accident from day one one. All the team make you feel you still important and hope in the horizon after when the medical system fell you miserably. Dr. Ikeda very professional and very understanding about your issue. Two tombs up.

Jim K.

My husband and I were immediately impressed with Dr Ikeda. I was hit by a car while cycling which caused broken bones and three brain injuries. The brain injuries caused double vision. Dr. Ikeda examined my eyes and got me started on vision therapy with his occupational therapist who specializes in vision therapy.  She (Chris) is absolutely great.  I am impressed with the array of tools used to help recover my binocular vision.  I am doing things I never thought were possible (balance boards etc).  Chris pushes me and keeps me motivated. I really enjoy my sessions with her.  The office staff is always friendly and they have a wonderful appointment reminder tool that makes it easy to keep my calendar up to date. I am happy the rehab center at Little Co. of Mary recommended them!!

Teresa S.

The Vision Therapy is handled in a separate office through a different door from the shared waiting room. Chris, the vision therapist, has a wide and varied assortment of tools, equipment and resources to best evaluate and treat most vision issues. After just a few visits, my double vision became easier to control, using exercises developed during the therapy process. It was time well-spent.

Joe M.

I have been coming here since I can remember. I love it here. The staff is so amazing and nice. They explain everything they gonna do and never make you feel rushed. Dr. Ikeda has always been my doctor and I would never want another one. He is the doctor for my whole family and is always asking how everyone is doing. I am also so crazy about picking out my frames and have to try so many and each person who helps me take the time and lets me try them all on. I would never want to go anywhere else! I definitely would recommend this office to anyone looking for a great eye doctor.

Kayla W.

This is not for the eye exam but for the frames selection portion. I brought my prescription from Kaiser here with my VSP insurance. The reception staff was very polite and professional.  Manny helped me to pick out frames and explain my coverage.  Very helpful and patient not like the individual at the other place I rated here on Yelp.  I was running late and he still helped me and was not bothered at all.  I am so glad I came here ..........very pleased.

Very professional staff and pleasant.

Daniel G.
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